Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://repository.uksw.edu//handle/123456789/23167
Title: Knowledge Transfer pada Sektor Publik Belajar dari Masa Transisi Negara Baru Timor Leste
Authors: Soares, Hernani Agostinho
Keywords: knowledge transfer;ekspatriat;tipologi;pola;tahapan;dukungan organisasi;faktor determinan;manfaat knowledge transfer
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: Knowledge Transfer dari ekspatriat kepada karyawan lokal dan perusahaan induk ke cabang perusahaan belakangan ini menjadi target menarik untuk diteliti. Namun, penelitian tentang knowledge transfer dari organisasi internasional ke organisasi sektor publik yang melibatkan ekspatriat dalam knowledge transfer belum cukup diteliti. Masalah utama penelitian ini adalah bagaimana ekspatriat mentransferkan pengetahuan mereka kepada mitra lokal, faktor-faktor determinan apa yang mempengaruhi proses knowledge transfer, dan manfaat apa yang diperoleh dari knowledge transfer pada organisasi sektor publik di Timor Leste. Penelitian ini mempunyai tiga tujuan sebagai jawaban atas pertanyaan tersebut, yakni (1) mengidentifikasi tipologi pengetahuan, pola transfer, tahapan knowledge transfer, dan dukungan organisasi, (2) mengklarifikasi faktor determinan yang mempengaruhi proses knowledge transfer, dan (3) mengidentifikasi manfaat knowledge transfer. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus, informan yang dipilih dalam penelitian ini terdiri atas ekspatriat, Junior Profesional, Direktur Sumber Daya Manusia yang bekerja di Kementerian Keuangan Timor Leste (Ministério das Finanças de Timor Leste) dan Polícia Nacional de Timor Leste (PNTL), dan organisasi internasional (Timor Leste Police Development Program/ TLPDP). Teknik pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini adalah metode triangulasi yaitu wawancara mendalam, observasi, dan dokumen. Teknik analisis data dimulai dari reduksi data, kategorisasi, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Temuan dalam penelitian adalah jenis pengetahuan yang ditransfer, pola dan tahapan sebagai mekanisme transfer, dan peranan organisasi merupakan dukungan bagi individu untuk melakukan knowledge transfer. Tipologi pengetahuan meliputi pengembangan kompetensi individu dan penguatan kemampuan institusi. Begitu juga pola pembelajaran terdiri atas mentoring-coaching, on Job Training, pelibatan, dan pembelajaran. Adapun tahapan knowledge transfer terdiri atas assisted, guided, dan independent, sedangkan dukungan organisasi terdiri atas pengawasan, penilaian kinerja, kontrak kerja, uraian tugas (job description), dan kerja sama antarorganisasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada dua faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi proses knowledge transfer yaitu faktor pendukung dan penghambat yang berasal dari individu dan organisasi. Faktor pendukung dari individu meliputi kemampuan individu terdiri atas kemampuan beradaptasi sender dan recipient, kemampuan transfer sender, kemampuan absorbtif recipient, kemampuan penguasaan bahasa recipient, motivasi/ semangat tinggi sender dan recipient. Faktor pendukung dari organisasi terdiri atas pemberian beasiswa recipient, studi banding recipient, perpanjangan kontrak kerja sender, capacity building program. Faktor penghambat dari individu terdiri atas turn over intention recipient, rendahnya kedisiplinan recipient dan tanggung jawab rendah dari recipient, budaya kritik recipient, pengalaman kerja recipient rendah, tingkat pendidikan dan usia recipient. Sedangkan faktor penghambat organisasi meliputi sistem atau politik, peraturan dan hukum, keterbatasan anggaran, hierarki / struktur organisasi, sistem penggajian, dan program retensi karyawan. Penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa knowledge transfer dapat emmberikan manfaat bagi individu berupa peningkatan knowledge, skill, dan attitude. Selain itu knowledge transfer dapat membentuk kemiripan organisasi, peningkatan efisiensi dan organisasi memiliki SOP.
Knowledge transfer from expatriates to local employees and from headquarters to branch offices has been an interesting research issue. However, knowledge transfer from international organizations to public sector organizations that involve expatriates is still relatively understudied. Consequently, this study seeks to identify how senders and recipients engage in knowledge transfer, the determining factors that affect the knowledge transfer process, and the impact of knowledge transfer on individuals and organizations. This study proposes three main research objectives to answer the research questions : (1) the identification of knowledge typology, transfer patterns, knowledge transfer phases, and organizational support, (2) the clarification of the determinant factors that affect the knowledge transfer process, and (3) the identification of the benefits of knowledge transfer. This dissertation relies on the case study-based qualitative method with the expatriates, junior professionals, and directors of human resource management at the Timor Leste Ministry of Finance (Ministério das Finanças de Timor Leste) and National Police (Polícia Nacional de Timor Leste/ PNTL) and an international organization (Timor Leste Police Development Program/ TLPDP). The research data is generated through the triangulation method that consists of in-depth interviews, observation, and documentation. This study further analyzes the data through data reduction, categorization, and conclusion. The findings demonstrate that knowledge transfer mechanisms consist of typology, pattern, and phases. Next, organizations play a role by supporting individuals to engage in knowledge transfer. Knowledge typology consists of individual competence and institutional capability empowerment. Similarly, the learning pattern includes mentoring-coaching, on-job training, involvement, and learning. Further, knowledge transfer phases consist of assisted, guided, and independent phases. Next, organizational supports consist of supervision and performance measurement, work contract and job description, and inter-organizational cooperation. Further, this study finds two factors that likely affect the knowledge transfer process, namely individual and organizational supporting and inhibiting factors. The individual supporting factors refer to individual capabilities that consist of senders and recipients’ ability to adapt, senders’ transfer capability, recipients’ absorptive capability, recipients’ language mastery, and senders and recipients’ high motivation/ spirit. Meanwhile, the organizational supporting factors are scholarships to recipients, study tours by recipients, the contract extension of senders, and capacity building programs. Next, the individual inhibiting factors are recipients’ turnover intention, recipients’ low discipline and responsibility, recipients’ critical culture, recipients’ limited working experience, and recipients’ age and educational level. Lastly, the organizational inhibiting factors are system or politics, regulations and law, budget constraints, organizational hierarchy/ structure, remuneration system, and employee retention program. This study documents that knowledge transfer likely benefits individuals in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitude. Besides, knowledge transfer also creates organizational similarity, enhanced efficiency, and SOP for organizations.
URI: https://repository.uksw.edu/handle/123456789/23167
Appears in Collections:D - Doctor of Management

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