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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://repository.uksw.edu/handle/123456789/728
Title: Kompleksitas Kemiskinan Tionghoa Benteng
Authors: Purwanto, Edi
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: Doktor Studi Pembangunan Program Pascasarjana UKSW
Abstract: There are three primary reasons I have chosen to research poverty in the Fortress (Benteng) Chinese community in this dissertation. First, in my observation, the social, economic, and cultural characteristics of the Fortress Chinese community are unique compared to other overseas Chinese communities in Indonesia. In particular, while most overseas Chinese communities in Indonesia are relatively prosperous, poverty is the norm for the Fortress Chinese people. Secondly, the causes for this poverty are complex, and the usual theories of poverty do not appear to adequately explain it. Finally, there is a scarcity of published research on factors contributing to poverty in the Fortress Chinese community. In the second chapter four standard theoretical models of poverty are discussed; namely, the structural theory of poverty, the cultural theory of poverty, the individual theory of poverty, and the cyclical interdependencies theory of poverty, which is an integration of the previous theories. The third chapter of this dissertation explains the method and process chosen for conducting the research and writing. The research method employed is the qualitative method, and the chapter details the research design and steps followed for the grounded research. The fourth chapter presents an overview of the history and background of the Fortress Chinese community in Indonesia. The fifth to tenth chapters contain the result of research. Categories for the data are defined and patterns in the categories are observed. In the fifth chapter a detailed portrait of Fortress Chinese poverty is observed through analysis of the defined categories and patterns. Prominent among these are a lack of ability to meet basic needs (food, health, and housing) and an inability to pay expenses related to child education. The sixth chapter summarizes political disadvantages of the Fortress Chinese under four subheadings: the difficulty in obtaining civic documents, flaws in the legal process to get the civic documents, access to educational and job opportunities, and inadequate protection of civil rights. The seventh chapter covers the social disadvantages of the Fortress Chinese, and this section is divided into three categories addressing the social network between the Fortress Chinese and other Chinese communities, the internal social network within the Fortress Chinese community, and the social network connections to their indigeneous neighbors. The eighth chapter deals with the economic disadvantages of the Fortress Chinese. In this section there are two categories covering the business network and the primary income of the poor. The ninth chapter addresses the cultural disadvantages of the Fortress Chinese in two parts: the portrait of the cultures of the Fortress Chinese and the portrait of the cultural distortions of the Fortress Chinese. Finally, the tenth chapter covers the individual deficiencies of the Fortress Chinese. This section is divided into three categories. They are individual character, motivation and the creativity of work, and the level of education. In the eleventh chapter of this dissertation I extrapolate concepts and variables from the patterns in the fifth to tenth chapters, provide a definition for each concept, and connect the concepts to one another to form the propositions and the relations of the propositions to each other. On this foundation a new theoretical model can be built as a product of the qualitative research purpose. In chapter twelve this new theory of poverty is compared to the previous theories of poverty. While existing theories of poverty typically explain poverty as stemming from political, social, and economic distortion or discrimination factors (the structural theory of poverty), or as a result of cultural disadvantages (the cultural theory of poverty), or as produced by individual deficiencies (the individual theory of poverty), or as a result of the cumulative or cyclical interdependence of the structural, cultural and individual distortions (the cycle theory of poverty), this new theory provides a fresh and more realistic explanation. The research indicates, for example, that political discrimination is not an independent variable directly causing poverty as the dependent variable. The new theory postulates that poverty in this community is caused by both unemployment and a lack of civil rights accessibility. The lack of civil rights accessibility is in turn caused by statelessness which itself is often a result of political discrimination, bureaucracy barriers, social pressures, and carelessness. Unemployment is caused by the lack of the job opportunities, a situation quite often caused by statelessness factors. Secondly, while the structural theory of poverty indicates that social distortion is a direct cause of Fortress Chinese poverty, the new theory suggests that in reality social distortions lead to unemployment, and the unemployment inevitably contributes to poverty. These social distortions are traceable to a lack of trust relationships (xinyong), which xinyong is the strength in overseas Chinese business network. This lack of trust relationship then contributes to ethnic stigmas and social class awareness among the Fortress Chinese people, along with primordial bounding, resulting in gong xiao, which is the term in the Chinese dialect referring to the bad habit of forgetting the kindliness or assistance of others. Thirdly, while the structural theory of poverty explains poverty in terms of economic distortions, the new theory that I propose suggests that the economic distortions alone are not causing this poverty directly. Rather, economic distortions lead to disguised unemployment and the multiplication of subsistence workers (i.e., subsistence farmers) which in turn impacts community income levels and contributes to Fortress Chinese poverty. These economic distortions then are just one link in a long chain of conditions, all of which may be indicted as indirectly causes for poverty. Some economic distortions, for example, are rooted in a lack of guanxi, which is the term in Chinese business networks for personal relationships. Furthermore, this lack of the guanxi is often caused by the Totok Chineses' superiority feelings and the marginalization of the Fortress Chinese in Indonesia Chinese communities, with a further result of cultural acculturations and lack of assimilation of Fortress Chinese with the indigenous culture and people. Fouthly, where the cultural theory of poverty explains poverty as a product of cultural disadvantages, the new theory that I propose suggests that cultural disadvantages alone are not a direct cause of Fortress Chinese poverty. Rather, such cultural distortions affect life-style, resulting in deficits such as unstable marriages and gambling habits which inevitably contribute to poverty in the community. These cultural distortions are in turn linked with problems related to cultural acculturation and assimilation. As a fifth observation, the individual theory of poverty broadly explains poverty in terms of individual deficits. The new theory proposes that there are a number of additional factors behind these individual deficits which must be considered. Among these are individual self-image, low motivation and lack of creativity in the workplace, and these in turn can be traced back to cultural acculturation and assimilation difficulties as well as problems related to lack of education. In the structural dimension, poverty in and of itself can cause a poor experience in the area of political discrimination, Bureaucracy barriers and social pressures are an inevitable result, and these in turn can lead to the statelessness state. Poverty creates a distinct ethnic stigma for the Fortress Chinese in other Chinese communities, leading to excessive social class awareness among the Fortress Chinese people. This further contributes to a lack of trust relationships (xinyong), so that the poverty itself eventually leads to further marginalization of the Fortress Chinese in Indonesian Chinese communities. In the individual dimension poverty also results in a low level of education, further exacerbating the other contributing factors. The relationship between micro and macro can be seen in terms of political discrimination causing problems both with assimilation and with cultural acculturation, and these further aggravate social distortions among the poor Fortress Chinese. This dissertation closes with a formal conclusion and recommendations in chapter thirteen.
URI: http://repository.uksw.edu/handle/123456789/728
Appears in Collections:D - Doctor of Development Studies

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D_902007010_BAB I.pdfBAB I596.45 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_BAB II.pdfBAB II2.09 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_BAB III.pdfBAB III757.04 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
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D_902007010_BAB V.pdfBAB V1.44 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
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D_902007010_BAB VII.pdfBAB VII1.94 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_BAB VIII.pdfBAB VIII1.59 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_BAB IX.pdfBAB IX2.19 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_BAB X.pdfBAB X1 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_BAB XI.pdfBAB XI3.51 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_BAB XII.pdfBAB XII1.11 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_BAB XIII.pdfBAB XIII1.16 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_Daftar Pustaka.pdfDaftar Pustaka631.64 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
D_902007010_Summary.pdfSummary279.13 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

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